Mt 13:1    1That same day Jesus went out of the house and sat beside the sea.

TJ 15:1    1That same day Jmmanuel went out and walked to the sea, where he sat down.

TJ 15:1    1An demselben Tage ging Jmmanuel hinaus und wanderte zum Meer, wo er sich setzte.

THE PROBLEM.   As noted by Beare (p. 290) "out of the house" seems like a Matthean addition. We have noted that the previous pericope of Mt 12:46-50 gave good reasons for having been a Matthean invention. Thus with the implied "house" being part of the invention, Jesus' departure from it here appears to be more of the same. However, this is a very obscure criticism.

SOLUTION.   The "went out" ["ging... hinaus"] of the (Aramaic —> German) TJ verse likely suggested to the compiler of Matthew to add "house" here, and so build a bridge to his preceding redaction of Mt 12:46-50, for which he had failed to provide a house beforehand. In the TJ verse, "went out" could refer to going out from wherever they had been staying, not necessarily a house. This is an example of a small difference from Matthew which, within the hypothesis of the TJ being a hoax, a literary hoaxer would have had no particular motivation for having implemented. PHoax 0.35.

However, the phrase "that same day" is probably not to be taken literally, as Beare inferred when saying it was a stock phrase of introduction. In the TJ's story, Jmmanuel had just previously been in Bethlehem and in the desert nearby (with Judas Iscariot). Thus it would have been more than a day's walk from there back to the Sea of Galilee, or even down to the Dead Sea. With the TJ's writing having been initiated years after Jmmanuel's Palestinian ministry, its author likely could not often have been at all precise in his chronology, even when relying also upon Jmmanuel's memory.

Mt 13:3-11    3And he told them [great crowds] many things in parables, saying: "A sower went out to sow. 4And as he sowed, some seeds fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured them. 5Other seeds fell on rocky ground, where they had not much soil, and immediately they sprang up, since they had no depth of soil, 6but when the sun rose they were scorched; and since they had no root they withered away. 7Other seeds fell upon thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them. 8Other seeds fell on good soil and brought forth grain, some a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. 9He who has ears, let him hear." 10Then the disciples came and said to him, "Why do you speak to them in parables?" 11And he answered them, "To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it has not been given."

TJ 15:3-11    3He talked to them in parables about various things, saying, "Behold, a sower went out to sow. 4While he sowed, some seeds fell on the pathway; then the birds came and ate them up. 5And some fell on the rocks, where there was not much soil. 6And as the sun rose high, they withered, and because they had no roots, they dried out. 7Some fell among the thorns; and the thorns grew up and smothered them. 8Some fell on good ground and bore fruit, some hundred-fold, some sixty-fold, some thirty-fold. 9Those who have ears, let them hear." 10The disciples stepped up to him and said, "Why do you speak in parables, when they do not understand your teachings?" 11He answered, saying, "It has been given to you to understand the secrets of the spirit, but it has not been given to them."

TJ 15:3-11    3Und er redete zu ihnen mancherlei in Gleichnissen und sprach: «Sehet, es ging ein Sämann aus zu säen. 4Indem er säte, fiel etliches an den Weg; da kamen die Vögel und frassen es auf. 5Etliches fiel auf das Felsige, wo es nicht viel Erde hatte. 6Und als die Sonne hochstieg, verwelkte es, und weil es nicht Wurzeln hatte, ward es dürre. 7Etliches fiel unter die Dornen; und die Dornen wuchsen auf und erstickten es. 8Etliches fiel auf gutes Land und trug Frucht, etliches hundertfältig, etliches sechzigfältig, etliches dreissigfältig. 9Wer Ohren hat, der höre.» 10Und die Jünger traten zu ihm und sprachen: «Warum redest du zu ihnen in Gleichnissen, so sie deine Lehre doch nicht verstehen?» 11Er antwortete und sprach: «Euch ist es gegeben, dass ihr die Geheimnisse des Geistes versteht, diesen aber ist es nicht gegeben.»

THE PROBLEMS.   As Beare (pp. 291-292, 297) noted, it is scarcely conceivable that Jesus ever delivered a parable about the kingdom of heaven to the crowds without giving them any clues as to how to interpret it. The explanation for it given a little later in Matthew was addressed only to the disciples, and even it does not make sense to many scholars or analysts of the Gospels. Beare felt that if Jesus had ever spoken this parable it was under different circumstances in which the people would have had a better chance of understanding it.

In addition, the clause "and immediately they sprang up" (in Mt 13:5) defies logic, in that shallowness of soil is not conducive to seeds sprouting quickly; sprouting first requires moisture, and moisture is retained longer in deep soil than in shallow.

SOLUTION.   The key difference between Matthew and the TJ here is that Jmmanuel's parable had been concerned with the secrets of the human spirit, not with the "kingdom of heaven." The parable then could have been deciphered by the thinking person who had heard Jmmanuel speak about the human spirit before, or who would hear him speak a little later. They would be able to deduce that the "seeds" referred to words of truth spoken about the human spirit and the laws of Creation. The "good ground" they could deduce referred to persons who could accept these words of truth, having already sought out truth for themselves. This all makes sense within the TJ context of the ultimate purpose of life being to seek and learn in order to evolve one's spirit. The seeds sown among the thorns are then readily interpreted, almost as in Matthew, as being the words of truth received by those whose excessive concern with affairs of the world or accumulation of material riches smothers their desire to seek spiritual truths. And similarly for the seeds sown on the rocks (see TJ 15:36-40 below).

The reason the Matthean parable is not similarly understandable is that the "seeds" are not easily construed to represent the "word of the kingdom of heaven," as Matthew's explanation to the disciples (Mt 13:19) gives it. Even if Jesus' listeners were to guess that the seeds represent the "word," they would scarcely be able to guess what that word might be. It might be something within the Torah, such as the Ten Commandments or the "Love your neighbor" admonition, or something Jesus had spoken about before according to Matthew, some combination of these, or something else yet.

In the parable, the seeds that fell on the rocks where there was very little soil would have found little or no soil moisture for inducing growth, especially under sunny conditions. And so they could not "immediately spring up." No significant roots could then develop either, since they could not penetrate below the rocks. However the compiler of Matthew evidently felt he could improve upon this part of the TJ's parable by adding "and immediately they sprang up." This he likely did in order to provide a stronger analogy—though at the expense of common sense—for the parable's later interpretation in Mt 13:20 (which does have a TJ parallel: TJ 15:37). In this latter interpretation, these seeds are like those who immediately rejoice in the word but later fall away from it. For that reason the compiler apparently wished these seeds to sprout "immediately."

With the TJ text, the "withering" of the seeds of TJ 15:6 apparently refers to their dessication at a high temperature under the sun, causing them to turn sterile.

We see that the TJ parable could have been spoken by a wisdom teacher whereas the Matthean version is wanting, as Beare pointed out. And since the problem with the latter's "immediately they sprang up" is quite obscure, a literary hoaxer is very unlikely to have noticed this to correct it. On the other hand, the writer of Matthew had motivation to generate the illogic, which he either ignored or did not perceive. PHoax 0.3.

It may be noted that in Mark's parallel to this parable (Mk 4:8), its writer altered the order of bounty from 100-60-30-fold to 30-60-100-fold. The latter is more natural for emphasizing how much was produced, and for being climactic. Within the tradition of Matthew having been abbreviated by the writer of Mark, one sees that here the latter writer found one of his many opportunities to make a minor change from Matthew for the sake of change. If the writer of Matthew had been copying from Mark, on the other hand, he would not likely have altered it to the non-climactic 100-60-30-fold.

Mt 13:12    12"For to him who has will more be given, and he will have abundance; but from him who has not, even what he has will be taken away."

TJ 15:18    18"For to those who have, more will be given so they may have in abundance; but from those who have not, from them will be taken what they have."

TJ 15:18    18«Denn also: Wer da hat, dem wird gegeben, dass er die Fülle habe; wer aber nicht hat, von dem wird auch genommen, was er hat.»

THE PROBLEM.   The Matthean verse is too enigmatic to make good sense. "For to him who has" what? And "from him who has not" what? Beare (p. 293) thought that this was once a piece of folk wisdom that meant "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer," which is spiritualized in Matthew. If so, the religious meaning is still obscure. If it is supposed that it refers to advances in learning the secrets of the kingdom of heaven, as perhaps implied by Beare, with great advances coming to those who have already advanced appreciably, and losses to those who have not, why weren't these secrets ever expressed and explained? Why are there no teachings on how to learn the secrets of the Kingdom? If this refers back to the parable of the sower, then the secrets are the "seeds," which are the "word of the kingdom" according to Mt 13:18. But Matthew's Jesus never speaks of words that lead to spiritual advancement; instead, his words are those advising what to do or not to do to get into heaven in the afterlife. The idea of spiritual advancement is not part of Christianity, since either one makes it into heaven or one does not. Matthew has no concept of Limbo as an afterlife place that might be a region of transition between heaven and hell.

At Mt 25:29 there is a doublet of this verse, and its preceding parable, Mt 25:14-28 (the parable of the talents), seems designed for the purpose of explaining the verse. This explanation commends the investing of one's money wisely so as to reap the greatest possible profits. But since this contradicts Mt 6:19 ("Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth"), it is not an accepted interpretation.

SOLUTION.   Although the TJ's verse is essentially the same as the Matthean parallel, within the TJ context it makes good sense. Three key verses of the intervening six that the writer of Matthew left out are:

TJ 15:15-17    15"Truly, I say to you, life and the knowledge of truth are only valuable and good when they are achieved through one's own thinking or through the resolving of mysteries that are recounted in parables. 16As yet human beings have little knowledge and no cognitions, and they are not yet conscious of the laws of Creation and the power of the consciousness. 17First, human beings must learn to recognize the truth and thus to live according to the laws of Creation, so they may become knowledgeable and strong in consciousness."

TJ 15:15-17    15«Wahrlich, ich sage euch: Das Leben und das Wissen der Wahrheit sind nur dann wertvoll und gut, wenn sie durch eigenes Denken erlangt werden, so also durch das Lösen von Geheimnissen, die in Gleichnissen genannt werden. 16Noch ist der Mensch kleinwissend und ohne Erkenntnis, und die Gesetze der Schöpfung und die Kraft des Bewusstseins sind ihm noch nicht bewusst. 17Erst muss der Mensch lernen, die Wahrheit zu erkennen und also auch nach den Gesetzen der Schöpfung zu leben, so er dann wissend wird und mächtig im Bewusstsein.»

Thus Jmmanuel was saying that one needs a certain basic knowledge about the human spirit and Creation before one can learn much more and attain spiritual knowledge in abundance. Without this basic understanding, derived through thinking for oneself as well as from proper guidance, one is easily led astray by false beliefs to become even more lacking in the understanding of important truths. It seems that Beare was on the right track in his interpretation, but could express it only vaguely since Christianity lacks the concept of spiritual evolution. In the TJ, Jmmanuel actually teaches how to be among "those who have," while Matthew's Jesus does not. The chances are poor that a literary hoaxer could purposely or accidentally have his work of fraud turn out to give full meaning to this enigmatic Matthean verse without altering it significantly. PHoax 0.2.

Mt 13:13-14    13"This is why I speak to them in parables, because seeing they do not see, and hearing they do not hear, nor do they understand. 14With them indeed is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah which says..."

TJ 15:19-20    19"Therefore I speak to them in parables, because with seeing eyes they do not see, and with hearing ears they do not hear; nor do they understand. 20And in them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled that says..."

TJ 15:19-20    19«Darum rede ich zu ihnen in Gleichnissen: Denn mit sehenden Augen sehen sie nicht, und mit hörenden Ohren hören sie nicht; und sie verstehen es auch nicht. 20Und an ihnen wird die Weissagung Jesajas erfüllt, die da sagt: ...»

THE PROBLEM.   This verse has been an enigma to many scholars. As Matthew Black has stated it, "The reason given in Matthew for the use of the parable ought surely to be a reason for the very opposite, plain speaking without parable."[1] In other words, if the people did not understand Jesus' parables, he should have spoken to them in plain ordinary language, Black felt.

SOLUTION.   Again the two sets of verses are practically identical. However, TJ verses before this point, which the compiler of Matthew omitted, explain Jmmanuel's usage of parables. The three most pertinent verses omitted are:

TJ 15:12-14    12"They [the people] certainly hear my words, but they still live and think according to the erroneous teachings of their scribes and Pharisees. 13Their consciousness is unknowing and empty, therefore they must first learn to live and think. 14What would be better to make them come alive and think, if not through speaking in parables!"

TJ 15:12-14    12«Sie horchen wohl meinen Worten, doch leben und denken sie aber nach den irren Lehren ihrer Schriftgelehrten und Pharisäer. 13Ihr Bewusstsein ist unwissend und leer, so sie also erst leben und denkenlernen müssen. 14Was wäre besser, sie lebend und denkend zu machen, wenn nicht durch das Sprechen in Gleichnissen!»

With such verses omitted from Matthew, it is not surprising that scholars have guessed incorrectly at the meaning of Mt 13:13. Black concluded that the problem lay in an incorrect interpretation of an Aramaic word when it was translated into Greek. Instead, it lay in the compiler's inability to tolerate the explanation within the TJ that people should learn to think for themselves. It is much more likely that the compiler of Matthew omitted the verses of explanation than that a literary hoaxer conceived that an explanation was needed and then created it so brilliantly. Naturally the writer of Matthew did not want the people of his day to think for themselves, but rather to listen to the church. PHoax 0.2.

Mt 13:19-23    19"When any one hears the word of the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil one comes and snatches away what is sown in his heart; this is what was sown along the path. 20As for what was sown on rocky ground, this is he who hears the word and immediately receives it with joy; 21yet he has no root in himself, but endures for a while, and when tribulation or persecution arises on account of the word, immediately he falls away. 22As for what was sown among thorns, this is he who hears the word, but the cares of the world and the delight in riches choke the word, and it proves unfruitful. 23As for what was sown on good soil, this is he who hears the word and understands it; he indeed bears fruit, and yields, in one case a hundredfold, in another sixty, and in another thirty."

TJ 15:36-40    36"If someone hears the word of truth about the spirit and the laws, and does not understand it, then the evil one comes and snatches away what is sown in their mind. That is for whom it is sown on the pathway. 37But for whom it is sown on the rocks, that is the one who hears the word and promptly accepts it with joy. 38But this person has no roots within, so that which is heard cannot take hold and grow. Rather, this one is fickle and becomes annoyed when misery and persecution arise because of the truth. 39But for whom it is sown among the thorns, that is the one who hears the word, but the woes of the world and the deception of material riches smother the truth and the knowledge; thus this one brings forth no fruit. 40But for whom it is sown on good ground, this is the one who accepts the word and seeks and finds the truth, so as to be able to live according to the laws of truth; thus the fruit is allowed to grow and ripen, bringing in a rich harvest. One person bears a hundred-fold, another sixty-fold and another thirty-fold."

TJ 15:36-40    36«Wenn jemand das Wort der Wahrheit des Geistes und der Gesetze hört und nicht versteht, so kommt der Arge und reisst hinweg, was da gesät ist in seinen Verstand; das ist der, bei dem an den Weg gesät ist. 37Bei dem aber, bei dem auf das Felsige gesät ist, das ist der, der das Wort hört und es alsbald aufnimmt mit Freuden. 38Er aber hat nicht Wurzeln in sich, so das Gehörte festwachsen könnte, sondern er ist wetterwendisch; wenn sich Trübsal und Verfolgung erhebt um der Wahrheit willen, so nimmt er Ärgernis. 39Bei dem aber unter die Dornen gesät ist, das ist der, der das Wort hört, doch die Sorge der Welt und der Betrug des materiellen Reichtums ersticken die Wahrheit und das Wissen, und also bringt er keine Frucht. 40Bei dem aber in das gute Land gesät ist, das ist der, der das Wort aufnimmt und die Wahrheit sucht und findet, so er nach den Gesetzen der Wahrheit leben kann; so er die Frucht wachsen und reifen lässt und reiche Ernte bringt; und der eine trägt hundertfältig, der andere sechzigfältig, der andere dreissigfältig.»

THE PROBLEMS.   Beare (pp. 297-298) found that this interpretation of the parable didn't fit it. It seems to relate farmers' difficulties to those of Christian evangelists who seek to win converts, without explaining the rewards that would correspond to the potential abundance of the harvest.

The explanation "he has no root in himself" seems to lack meaning; hence some analysts suppose that "himself" should instead read "it," referring back to "the word."

Another problem is the lack of any indication that those who hear the word and subsequently choke on it or suffer tribulation did not actually understand it. A person can be told something and understand it, yet still fail to take appropriate action.

SOLUTION.   The TJ version is more understandable because it refers to teachings of truth sown in the mind, not the heart. Thus, the idea is that if one does not understand the Word, i.e., the words of truth, then malicious thoughts (as from scribes, Pharisees and their converts) can easily replace the misunderstood true teachings with false beliefs. In the TJ, "the evil one" (from the German "der Arge") has no basis for being interpreted as "the devil."

With the TJ, "this person has no roots within" must refer to having no connectivity with one's spirit within, perhaps not even realizing the spirit exists. There is then no spiritual context within which to place newly heard words of truth, whose meaning then becomes lost.

The last TJ verse of the parable's interpretation, TJ 15:40, is consistent with other verses in the TJ where living a fruitful life involves seeking and finding the truth. This represents much more than Matthew's "understanding the word."

In this passage, as elsewhere, the compiler replaced "spirit" with "kingdom" and eliminated "truth." His purpose we again surmise was to encourage Christians to accept the teachings of the church as it reflected the kingdom-of-God concept, and not to rely upon one's own consciousness and thinking for acquiring the truth. He could not, of course, come right out and state that the word of truth was the word of the Christian church and its emerging scriptures, since his gospel was supposedly written before the church was formed, so he had to delete "truth." In the TJ, the reward of following a life of seeking and finding truth is spiritual enlightenment, whose benefits become manifest in future lives if not in the present life. Thus again, the TJ version is more consistent with having been spoken by a teacher of wisdom, for the reasons given. PHoax 0.4.

Mt 13:24-30    24Another parable he put before them, saying, "The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field; 25but while men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed weeds among the wheat, and went away. 26So when the plants came up and bore grain, then the weeds appeared also. 27And the servants of the householder came and said to him, 'Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then has it weeds?' 28He said to them, 'An enemy has done this.' The servants said to him, 'Then do you want us to go and gather them?' 29But he said, 'No; lest in gathering the weeds you root up the wheat along with them. 30Let both grow together until the harvest; and at harvest time I will tell the reapers, Gather the weeds first and bind them into bundles to be burned, but gather the wheat into my barn.'"

TJ 15:43-52    43But he put before them another parable and said, "The consciousness-related world is like a man who planted good seeds in his field. 44But while he slept, his enemy came and sowed weeds among the good seeds and went away. 45As the plantings grew and bore fruit, the weeds also appeared. 46Then the servants came to the sower and said, 'Master, did you not sow good seed in your field? Where have the weeds come from?' 47He spoke to them, 'An enemy has done this.' Then the servants said, 'Do you want us to go out and pull up the weeds?' 48He replied, 'No, lest you uproot the good fruit when you pull up the weeds. 49Let both grow together until the harvest, and near harvest time I will tell the reapers: First gather the weeds and bind them in bundles, that they may be burned and the ashes strewn over the field so that the soil will be nourished; but gather the good fruit and stack it for me in my barn.' 50For behold," said Jmmanuel, "both grow side by side, the weeds and the good fruit. 51The weeds hinder the good fruit from growing, yet later the weeds will become compost and nourish the ground. 52Were it not for the weeds being made into nourishment for the soil, the good fruit could not grow, since it needs nourishment."

TJ 15:43-52    43Er legte ihnen aber ein anderes Gleichnis vor und sprach: «Das bewusstseinsmässige Reich ist gleich einem Menschen, der guten Samen auf seinen Acker säte. 44Da er aber schlief, kam sein Feind und säte Unkraut zwischen die gute Sämerei und ging davon. 45Da nun die Saat wuchs und Frucht brachte, da fand sich auch das Unkraut. 46Da traten die Knechte zu dem Sämann und sprachen: ‹Herr, hast du nicht guten Samen auf deinen Acker gesät, woher hat er dann das Unkraut›? 47Er sprach zu ihnen: ‹Das hat ein Feind getan›, da sprachen die Knechte: ‹Willst du denn, dass wir hingehen und es ausjäten›? 48Er aber sprach: ‹Nein, auf dass ihr nicht zugleich die gute Frucht mit ausreisset, wenn ihr das Unkraut ausjätet. 49Lasset beides miteinander wachsen bis zur Ernte; und um der Ernte Zeit will ich zu den Schnittern sagen: Sammelt zuvor das Unkraut und bindet es in Bündel, dass man es verbrenne und die Asche über das Feld streue, so es dem Erdreich Nahrung sei; die gute Frucht aber sammelt und stapelt sie mir in meiner Scheune›. 50«Denn sehet,» sprach Jmmanuel, «beide wachsen miteinander, das Unkraut und die gute Frucht. 51Das Unkraut hindert die gute Frucht am Wachstum, doch aber wird das Unkraut später zu Dünger und nährt den Boden. 52Wäre nicht das Unkraut, aus dem Nahrung für das Erdreich gemacht wird, so könnte die gute Frucht nicht wachsen, die doch also der Nahrung bedarf.»

THE PROBLEMS.   Beare (pp. 303-305) found several problems with the Matthean parable that forced him to conclude if it had originated with Jesus, the writer of Matthew had reshaped it. One is that the parable's interpretation (Mt 13:37-43) does not deal with the primary focus of the parable itself, which was the requirement of not disposing with the weeds too soon. Another is its difficulty or uncertainty of understandable interpretation, unless that involves an established church as representing the kingdom of heaven and the weeds as representing those within the church who are considered evil. But in that case the parable could not have been spoken by Jesus, years before the first church was conceived or formed. Thus with the parable's later interpretation not being believable and not coming authentically from Jesus (see below under Mt 13:36-43), its originally intended interpretation is totally uncertain—not what a wisdom teacher would have spoken.

SOLUTION.   The Matthean parable is essentially the same as the first half of the TJ's parable. However, the TJ parable continues on to explain the value of the weeds, and in so doing brings out the point that good can often be made to arise from what appears to be only evil. Thus Beare's objections do not apply to it. The compiler of Matthew apparently could not understand or tolerate this viewpoint, since the kingdom of heaven represented only the good. Hence he truncated the TJ parable.

As applied to the spiritual realm, the implication of the TJ's parable is that spiritual forces or entities see to it that one's spirit during incarnations will at times be faced with situations that involve evil, and this provides the person—the spirit—with challenges which, if properly faced, allow it to grow and evolve.

Once again, the TJ verses are not susceptible to Beare's logical objections to Matthew's parallels. They appear to have emanated from a teacher of wisdom, not from a literary hoaxer. PHoax 0.2.

Mt 13:31-32    31Another parable he put before them, saying, "The kingdom of heaven is like a grain of mustard seed which a man took and sowed in his field; 32it is the smallest of all seeds, but when it has grown it is the greatest of shrubs and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and make nests in its branches."

TJ 15:53-54    53He presented the people with another parable, saying, "The consciousness-related world is like a mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his field. 54It is the smallest among the seeds, but when it is grown, it is bigger than all the shrubs and becomes a tree, so that birds of the sky come and dwell in its branches."

TJ 15:53-54    53Ein anderes Gleichnis legte er dem Volke vor und sprach: «Das bewusstseinsmässige Reich ist gleich einem Senfkorn, das ein Mensch nahm und säte es auf seinen Acker. 54Welches das kleinste ist unter den Samen; wenn es aber gewachsen ist, so ist es grösser als alle Sträucher und wird ein Baum, dass die Vögel unter dem Himmel kommen und wohnen in seinen Zweigen.»

THE PROBLEMS.   Again the foremost problem is that its interpretation is in doubt. One is that it is meant to portray the growth of Christianity through influx of gentiles.[2]

Another is that it represents the kingdom of God then being present and from then on being available to all men.[3] However, the former interpretation presumes the existence already of the church, which is not viable. The latter does not do justice to the parable's growth process; i.e., if the kingdom of heaven is suddenly present on earth (the verse says "is like", not "becomes like"), its availability did not gradually grow like a shrub or tree grows. Both interpretations suffer from the kingdom of heaven—a supposed realm within the heavens—being likened to a material process on Earth, i.e., the growth of the church: its membership, its numbers and its buildings.

SOLUTION.   With the TJ the interpretation is that one's spirit or consciousness starts out being very insignificant, upon its initiation countless incarnations ago, but gradually grows in power and evolves as it accumulates knowledge and wisdom during repeated incarnations. The spiritual realm is the home of the spirit to which it returns between lives.

The indications are that the writer of Matthew's little alteration of the TJ's "spiritual kingdom" (or consciousness-related world) to "kingdom of heaven" brought about the problems. It is less plausible to argue in the opposite direction, since a hoaxer would have needed to make a host of other alterations throughout his text, all consistent, in order that this one leave behind no problem. PHoax 0.3.

The difference between birds "of the air" in Matthew and "of the sky" in the TJ is less than it may seem. In the scholars' preferred Greek form of Matthew, the word translated in the RSV Bible as "air" is "heavens," which can also mean "sky."

Mt 13:33    33He told them another parable. "The kingdom of heaven is like leaven which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till it was all leavened."

TJ 15:55    55He told the people another parable, "The consciousness-related world is like leaven, which a woman took and mixed into three bushels of flour until it was thoroughly leavened."

TJ 15:55    55Ein anderes Gleichnis redete er zum Volke: «Das bewusstseinsmässige Reich ist einem Sauerteig gleich, den ein Weib nahm und vermengte ihn unter drei Scheffel Mehl, bis dass er ganz durchsäuert ward.»

THE PROBLEM.   An understanding of this parable is rendered difficult because of the use of the verb "hid," which follows the Greek text preferred by scholars. Christian attempts to explain the leaven being hidden within the flour as analogous to the initiation of the Church occurring in a silent, secretive manner, detracts from the point of the parable, which has usually been that the "kingdom produces ultimate consequences out of all proportion to its insignificant beginning.[4] The King James version and others also use "hid, while the NIV uses "mixed," as does the New American Bible, the German Bible and others. This may indicate that the verb usually translated as "hid" was altered a bit by some Bible editors to allow a more understandable interpretation. However, even the growth-of-the-Church interpretation is not really satisfactory since it just repeats the thrust of the preceding parable of the mustard seed. Similarly, the "hidden" interpretation repeats an important portion of the parable of the hidden treasure (Mt 13:44). Would a wisdom teacher utter a parable whose meaning even scholars cannot agree upon?

SOLUTION.   The Matthean and TJ verses are essentially the same, except for "kingdom of heaven" appearing in Matthew as usual where the TJ has 'consciousness-related world" or "spiritual kingdom," and except for the RSV version of Matthew above, using "hid" rather than "mixed." With the TJ referring to the world of the spirit within, and using "mixed" as the verb, the meaning appears more evident—recognition of the spirit within, and its power, brings about a complete transformation, in analogy to the transformational power of the yeast mixed into the flour. Thus from the TJ viewpoint, the Bible versions that interpret the Greek verb to mean "mixed" come closer to the truth. It may not have been the writer of Matthew who was responsible for this confusion, but perhaps the man who translated Matthew into Greek, or a later transcriber. PHoax 0.5.

Mt 13:36-43    36...And his disciples came to him, saying, "Explain to us the parable of the weeds of the field." 37He answered, "He who sows the good seed is the Son of man; 38the field is the world, and the good seed means the sons of the kingdom; the weeds are the sons of the evil one. ..."

TJ    [No cognate]

THE PROBLEM.   Here Beare's opinion (p. 311) was that beyond doubt this passage of "explanation" is the work of the writer of Matthew and not of the originator of the parable itself. In particular, Beare found verses 13:37-39 to be total myth, since real people cannot be strictly classified into two types—one type as pure as the "Son of man" and the other as evil as the devil. One may also refer to Beare (p. 27) for works of other biblical scholars who find the passage non-genuine; it seems to be a nearly unanimous scholarly opinion. Sanders summarizes thus, "No one, I think, will maintain the authenticity of this pericope."[5]

SOLUTION.   In the TJ's parable of the tares, sufficient explanation occurs within the parable itself (presented earlier) so that no extra interpretation is necessary. That is, the weeds, though regarded as a hindrance during the growing season, are also regarded as beneficial if they are later composted or burned and reapplied to the soil. The TJ spells this out, while Matthew omits this conclusion, as its writer did not believe in any intermediate state between good and evil.

However, assuming Beare, Sanders and other scholars are correct, not even a literary hoaxer would fall for the explanation these verses give, and so we assign PHoax 0.5.

Mt 13:44    44"The kingdom of heaven is like treasure hidden in a field, which a man found and covered up; then in his joy he goes and sells all that he has and buys that field."

TJ 15:58    58"Those who have ears, let them hear: The consciousness-related world is like a hidden treasure in the field, which a person finds and conceals; and in his joy over the discovery he goes out and sells everything he has and buys the field."

TJ 15:58    58«Wer Ohren hat, der höre: Das bewusstseinsmässige Reich ist gleich einem verborgenen Schatz im Acker, welchen ein Mensch findet und verbirgt ihn; und in seiner Freude darüber geht er hin und verkauft alles, was er hat, und kauft den Acker.»

THE PROBLEM.   This parable has been difficult to understand within the Christian tradition because the man covered up the treasure he found. If finding the treasure is likened to accepting Christ as savior, then according to Mt 10:32-33 the fact should be acknowledged before men. John Crosson has called this a self-defeating passage, which, if it is successful, is so because it is paradoxical.[6]

SOLUTION.   The TJ verse is essentially the same except that "conscousness-related world" or "spiritual kingdom" was again replaced by "kingdom of heaven." Within the TJ context, it is clear that the spiritual kingdom refers to the realm of the spirit within each person. The occasion when the existence of one's spirit is first discovered or confirmed is a time of great joy, and from then on one's spirit is regarded as of utmost value, always to be kept in mind. However, its existence cannot be proven to anyone else, so it remains a treasure hidden from others who deny the existence, pre-existence, power or immortality of one's spirit.

This Matthean parable, especially, can be said to exhibit editorial "fatigue." The writer of Matthew replaced the TJ's "spiritual kingdom" with "kingdom of heaven" in Mt 13:44a. Then he continued using the TJ's text unaltered in the rest of the verse. This led to the inability of thinking persons to understand the parable's meaning.

Mt 13:47-48    47"Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net which was thrown into the sea and gathered fish of every kind; 48when it was full, men drew it ashore and sat down and sorted the good into vessels but threw away the bad."

TJ 15:60-61    60"Again, the consciousness-related world is like a net that was thrown into the sea and caught all manner of fish. 61When it was full, the fishermen pulled it ashore, sat down and sorted the good fish into containers, but threw the useless ones away."

TJ 15:60-61    60«Abermals ist das bewusstseinsmässige Reich gleich einem Netze, das ins Meer geworfen ward und allerlei Gattung fing. 61Als es aber voll war, zogen sie es heraus an das Ufer, sassen und lasen die Guten in Gefässe zusammen, aber die Unnützen warfen sie weg.»

THE PROBLEM.   As Beare noted (p. 315), this parable is not a decent allegory. There are no clues as to what is really meant by the fishing, the net, the sea or the vessels. He went on to discuss (Beare, p. 316) how the explanation that follows in Mt 13:49-50 is unsatisfactory, as is the Christian interpretation. In particular, the sorting of the fish is done right away by the fishermen and not by angels, rather than being delayed until the Day of Judgment.

SOLUTION.   Again the problem was caused by substitution of "kingdom of heaven" for "spiritual kingdom." In the TJ's parable, it is clear that the spiritual kingdom under discussion is that associated with the individual human's spirit or consciousness. The point of the parable is then seen to be that one's spirit is cognizant of all that goes on with the individual, but learns and grows just from those experiences that bring new and relevant truths to mind (the wisdom of knowledge) and thereby bring enlightenment. This schooling of the spirit is an ongoing process, as with the fishing in the parable, and is not delayed until after death.

Within the Christian context, which the writer of Matthew helped develop, it is easy to see that the TJ's discussion of "spirit" here and in the preceding two parables, referred to the human spirit and demanded editorial action. However, it is almost inconceivable that a literary hoaxer could possess the ingenuity or creativity to substitute "spiritual kingdom" for "kingdom of heaven" in the Matthean parables, and thereby cause parables that make little or no sense take on resplendent meanings that are consistent with the whole TJ text. PHoax 0.05.

Mt 13:49-50    49"So it will be at the close of the age. The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous, 50and throw them into the furnace of fire; there men will weep and gnash their teeth."

TJ    [No cognate]

THE PROBLEMS.   Beare (p. 315) found several illogicalities in these two verses. For example, he noticed that fish caught in the net are actually sorted according to their edibility or marketability, not by whether they are "evil" or not. As another example, he noted that the idea of throwing the evil ones into the furnace of fire seems to have been borrowed inappropriately from the interpretation of the parable of the tares. These problems point to an editor's handiwork, not to an original saying of a teacher of wisdom. Joachim Jeremias also finds verses 13:49-50 to be purely the work of Matthew's compiler.[7]

SOLUTION.   This passage appears as a substitution for a short TJ passage explaining that Jmmanuel's parables deal with the spiritual kingdom, which rules within the individual but over which the individual's ego is the temporary king.

Beare's rejection of these two verses caused him to reject Mt 13:47-48 also, which is the parable of the fish net, while the TJ, having close cognates to it, indicates its genuineness if applied to the spiritual kingdom. This is a reminder that Beare was frequently incorrect, judging from the TJ, though correct somewhat more often than not. On the other hand, David Catchpole found verses 13:47-48 to be authentic while finding 13:49 to be inauthentic,[8] which is essentially the correct combination of deductions according to the TJ.

The Matthean verses here would not likely be utilized intact by a literary hoaxer, but would perhaps be utilized in some altered form. PHoax 0.45.

Mt 13:54    54and coming to his own country he taught them in their synagogue...

TJ 15:67    67Arriving in his home town of Nazareth, he taught in the synagogue...

TJ 15:67    67So kam er in seine Vaterstadt Nazareth, und lehrte in der Synagoge, ...

THE PROBLEM.   Beare (p. 319) mentioned that Matthew does the same peculiar thing that Mark does of not naming Nazareth. Beare and others could deduce that "his own country" referred to Nazareth. Why not name it? Jesus had already been in his own country—Galilee—while speaking the parables. So he was coming to his own town, Nazareth.

SOLUTION.   The TJ cognate, though close, is seen not to suffer from the criticism. The motivation for the compiler to omit Nazareth seems to have been to avoid naming the village that rejected Jesus. This explanation regarding the omission of Nazareth will be discussed further under Mt 14:1.

When the individual odds against the hoax hypothesis from this chapter's verse comparisons (TJ 15 versus Mt 13) are accumulated, one finds the probability for hoax here to be only 0.000044.

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1. Black, Matthew, An Aramaic Approach to the Gospels and to Acts (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967) p. 213.

2. Jeremias, Joachim, The Parables of Jesus, transl. S. H. Hooke (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963) p. 149.

3. Dodd, C. H., The Parables of the Kingdom (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961) p. 154.

4. Carson, D. A., "Matthew," in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol. 8 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981), p. 319.

5. Sanders, E. P., Jesus and Judaism (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985) p. 142.

6. Crosson, John Dominic, Finding is the First Act: Trove Folktales and Jesus' Treasure Parable (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979) p. 120.

7. Jeremias, Parables of Jesus, pp. 81-85.

8. Catchpole, David, "John the Baptist, Jesus and the parable of the tares," Scottish Journal of Theology (1978), pp. 557-570.